What microorganisms have been used for bioterrorism?

What microorganisms have been used for bioterrorism?

4 Types of Pathogenic Bacteria Used in Bioterrorism

  • Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
  • Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
  • Francisella tularensis subsp. Tularensis (valley fever)
  • Yersinia pestis (the plague)

When was bioterrorism first used?

One of the first recorded uses of biological warfare occurred in 1347, when Mongol forces are reported to have catapulted plague-infested bodies over the walls into the Black Sea port of Caffa (now Feodosiya, Ukraine), at that time a Genoese trade centre in the Crimean Peninsula.

Has bioterrorism ever been used?

Bioterrorism during the Contemporary Period This attack, which resulted in 751 cases, 45 of whom had to be hospitalized, seems to be one of the very few confirmed instances of biological terrorism after World War II, with a few exceptions such as the ‘anthrax letters case’ [19].

What are examples of bioterrorism?

What are the biological agents that can be utilized for bioterrorism?

Biologic agent Disease caused by the agent
Yersinia pestis Plague
Variola major Smallpox
Francisella tularensis Tularemia
Filoviruses (for example, Ebola, Marburg) and arenaviruses (for example, Lassa, Machupo) Viral hemorrhagic fevers

Was Ebola a biological weapon?

Bioterrorism attacks could also result in an epidemic, for example if Ebola or Lassa viruses were used as the biological agents. Biological weapons is a subset of a larger class of weapons referred to as weapons of mass destruction, which also includes chemical, nuclear and radiological weapons.

How do you control bioterrorism?

Depending on the situation, wear a face mask to reduce inhaling or spreading germs. If you have been exposed to a biological agent, remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow official instructions for disposal of contaminated items. Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes.

What are the two biggest bioterrorism threats?

These agents are the second highest priority:

  • Brucellosis (Brucella species)
  • Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens.
  • Food safety threats (e.g., Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella)
  • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)
  • Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

What is the biggest act of bioterrorism known to date?

The most significant biological attack in the United States (US) was the intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars with Salmonella by a religious cult in Oregon in 1984 [2]. In September 2001, the American public was exposed to anthrax spores as a bioweapon delivered through the US postal system.