What is oculomotor reflex?
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is vital for our gaze stability during everyday activities. It functions to stabilize images on the retina during head motion by producing compensatory eye movements of equal amplitude and opposite direction.
What is an abnormal vestibulo-ocular reflex?
In the abnormal response, the eyes are dragged off the target when the head turns (in one direction), followed by eye movements back to the target. This response indicates a VOR deficit on the side of the head turn. In the bilateral loss, the abnormal result will occur with head thrusts in both directions.
What causes vestibulo-ocular reflex?
Function. The vestibulo-ocular reflex is driven by signals arising from the vestibular system of the inner ear. The semicircular canals detect head rotation and provide the rotational component, whereas the otoliths detect head translation and drive the translational component.
What is the VCR reflex?
The Vestibulocollic Reflex (VCR) The vestibulocollic reflex acts on the neck musculature in order to stabilize the head. Reflex head movement counters the movement sensed by the otoliths or semicircular canals. The neural pathways mediating this reflex are as yet uncertain.
What is eye reflex called?
Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), eye movement that functions to stabilize gaze by countering movement of the head.
What causes VOR?
Caloric Testing This creates nystagmus by causing deflections in the cupula, which changes the neural firing rate from the lateral labyrinth of the test ear. It is believed that caloric stimulation is analogous to a very slow head rotation, and therefore initiates the VOR.
What is a postural reflex?
Summary. Collectively, the postural reflexes provide the basis for automatic control of posture, balance, and coordination in a gravity-based environment. There are three types of postural reflexes: righting reactions, placing reactions, and equilibrium reactions.
What is the vestibulo Collic reflex?
The vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) is a compensatory response of the neck muscles when head motion is sensed by the vestibular organs in the inner ear. The cervicocollic reflex (CCR) is a compensatory response of the neck muscles that is driven by neck proprioceptive inputs during motion of the body.
What is a retinal slip?
Definition. Motion of the visual image on the surface of the retina. Slip of the visual image across large portions of the retina is the stimulus that stimulates optokinetic eye movements, and also the stimulus that produces the adaptation (improvement) of the optokinetic system.
Which is the best definition of the word reflex?
Learning Although some of our behaviour is based on reflex and instinctive reactions, most of our behaviour is learned. A combination of sharp reflexes, quick feet, ducking and swaying will usually look after you. A reflex or a reflex action is a normal uncontrollable reaction of your body to something that you feel, see, or experience.
How are reflexes made possible in the brain?
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain.
What does it mean when your reflexes are decreased?
Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one.  A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch.
Which is normal, hypo reflexive or hyper reflexive?
While 2+ is considered normal, some healthy individuals are hypo-reflexive and register all reflexes at 1+, while others are hyper-reflexive and register all reflexes at 3+. An example of reflex reversal is depicted. Activating the same spinal reflex pathway can cause limb flexion while standing, and extension while walking.
Which is the correct definition of the vestibulo-ocular reflex?
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system of the inner ear causes eye movement.
How are head impulse tests used to diagnose vestibular problems?
The head impulse test can be done at the bed side and used as a screening tool for problems with a person’s vestibular system. It can also be diagnostically tested by doing a video-head impose test (VHIT). In this diagnostic test, a person wears highly sensitive goggles that detect rapid changed in eye movement.
What are the reflexes of the peripheral nervous system?
1 Stretch Reflex. The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. 2 Golgi Tendon Reflex. The Golgi tendon reflex is a normal component of the reflex arc of the peripheral nervous system. 3 Crossed Extensor Reflex. 4 Withdrawal Reflex.
Where does the signal from the vestibular nerve end?
The signal for the horizontal rotational component travels via the vestibular nerve through the vestibular ganglion and end in the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. From these nuclei, fibers cross to the abducens nucleus of the opposite side of the brain. Here, fibres synapse with 2 additional pathways.