What are toga viruses?
Togaviruses (family Togaviridae) are enveloped and icosahedral viruses that possess a positive-sense single-strand RNA genome of 11 kb. Members of this family are frequently referred to as alphaviruses, a genus of this family.
What does Togaviridae cause?
VEEV, a zoonotic virus, could infect birds, horses, and human. VEEV infection causes rash, fever, and encephalitis. Rubella virus, that causes German measles in human, is unique among togaviruses in that it is not transmitted via mosquitoes.
Which disease is caused by alphavirus?
Pathogenesis and immune response
|Chikungunya virus||Rash, arthritis||Africa, Latin America, India, SE Asia|
|Eastern equine encephalitis virus||Encephalitis||Americas|
|Mayaro virus||Rash, arthritis||South America|
|O’nyong’nyong virus||Rash, arthritis||Africa|
What are the symptoms of Togavirus?
Symptoms of encephalitis are drowsiness, stiff neck, disorientation, convulsions, tremors, coma, and, in some cases, death. The alphaviruses are transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector, usually mosquitoes. Alphavirus infections usually occur during warm weather months when mosquitoes are more active and prevalent.
Is Dengue an alphavirus?
Dengue viruses of all four serotypes cause three distinct syndromes: classic dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Although caused by the same viruses, dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are pathogenetically, clinically, and epidemiologically distinct.
What diseases are caused by arbovirus?
Arboviruses can cause different types of illness, such as:
- encephalitis, meaning inflammation of the brain.
- febrile diseases, which involve a fever sometimes accompanied by rash.
- hemorrhagic fevers, which cause damage to blood vessels, bleeding out of broken blood vessels, and fever.
What causes reovirus?
Some viruses of this family, such as phytoreoviruses and oryzaviruses, infect plants. Most of the plant-infecting reoviruses are transmitted between plants by insect vectors. The viruses replicate in both the plant and the insect, generally causing disease in the plant, but little or no harm to the infected insect.
Is there a vaccine for alphavirus?
A Multiagent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges.
Is dengue an envelope?
The dengue virus is a roughly spherical structure composed of the viral genome and capsid proteins surrounded by an envelope and a shell of proteins.
Can arboviruses be cured?
This disease is most prevalent in certain parts of Africa and South America. It isn’t curable, but you can prevent it with the yellow fever vaccine.
What kind of virus is a togavirus?
Togavirus, any of three genera of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the family Togaviridae. Flaviviruses, once considered to be of the Togaviridae, are now designated as members of a separate family, Flaviviridae. The togavirus genera are Alphavirus, which is carried by mosquitoes, and Rubivirus, which contains rubella,…
Where does replication take place in the Togaviridae?
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive-stranded RNA-virus-transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and suppression of termination. The vector for Togaviridae is primarily the mosquito, where replication of the virus occurs.
What do you call a virus that infects a plant?
bacteria is called a bacteriophage, or simply a phage. Viruses that infect animal or plant cells are referred to generally as animal virusesor plant viruses. A few viruses can grow
How big is the genome of a flavivirus?
Flavivirus, any virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses have enveloped and spherical virions (virus particles) that are between 40 and 60 nm (1 nm = 10 −9 metre) in diameter. The flavivirus genome consists of nonsegmented single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ribonucleic acid).