How does Clostridium tetani cause damage?

How does Clostridium tetani cause damage?

Tetanus is a serious disease of the nervous system caused by a toxin-producing bacterium. The disease causes muscle contractions, particularly of your jaw and neck muscles. Tetanus is commonly known as lockjaw. Severe complications of tetanus can be life-threatening.

Is Clostridium tetani harmful?

If Clostridium tetani spores are deposited in a wound, the neurotoxin interferes with nerves that control muscle movement. The infection can cause severe muscle spasms, serious breathing difficulties, and can ultimately be fatal.

What does the toxin of Clostridium tetani do?

Clostridium tetani is an obligate anaerobic bacteria whose spores produce two distinct toxins—tetanolysin, which causes local tissue destruction, and tetanospasmin, which causes clinical tetanus.

Does tetanus cause permanent damage?

The toxin does no permanent damage, and patients who receive appropriate supportive care generally recover. Sometimes symptoms develop rapidly, and some people live in remote areas where they are not able to receive appropriate care and are at a higher risk of death from tetanus.

What does Clostridium tetani look like?

tetani are usually rod-shaped and up to 2.5 μm long, but they become enlarged and tennis racket- or drumstick-shaped when forming spores. C. tetani spores are extremely hardy and can be found globally in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. If inoculated into a wound, C.

What color is Clostridium tetani?

Clostridium tetani does not ferment lactose, maltose, fructose, arabinose, mannose or xylose, but does produce a greenish fluorescence in MacConkey’s Media containing neutral red.

Why is there so little information on Clostridium tetani?

This paucity of information on the bacteria in vitro means very little is known about antimicrobial sensitivity patterns, important if resistance were to develop in Clostridium tetani. Similarly there have been very few attempts to quantify the toxin load and assess the prognostic significance of this.

What are the causes of death from tetanus?

Lack of oxygen may also induce cardiac arrest and death. Pneumonia is another cause of death. You can easily prevent tetanus by being vaccinated. The tetanus vaccine usually is given to children as part of the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine.

Where does the bacteria that causes tetanus come from?

Tetanus is an infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. Spores of tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust, and manure. Stepping on nails or other sharp objects is one way people are exposed to the bacteria that cause tetanus.

What kind of climate does c.tetani live in?

C. tetani is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium, typically up to 0.5 micrometers wide and 2.5 micrometers long. It is motile by way of various flagellae that surround its body. C. tetani is an anaerobe and cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. It grows best at temperatures ranging from 33°C to 37°C.

How big is the bacterium Clostridium tetani?

Clostridium tetani is a common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus. When growing in soil, C. tetani is rod-shaped and up to 2.5 μm long. However, when forming spores, C. tetani becomes substantially enlarged at one end, resembling a tennis racket or drumstick.

What should I do if I have Clostridium tetani?

These plates should then be taken to the bedside in an anaerobic jar and inoculated with any necrotic material from the wound and then placed back into anaerobic conditions thus minimizing the time that the organisms will be subjected to atmospheric oxygen.

What kind of spores do c.tetani have?

Upon exposure to various conditions, C. tetani can shed its flagella and form a spore. Each cell can form a single spore, generally at one end of the cell, giving the cell a distinctive drumstick shape. C. tetani spores are extremely hardy and are resistant to heat, various antiseptics, and boiling for several minutes.

Which is the most potent toxin in c.tetani?

The function of tetanolysin is unclear, although it may help C. tetani to establish infection within a wound. Tetanospasmin (“tetanus toxin”) is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated lethal dose less than 2.5 nanograms per kilogram of body weight, and is responsible for the symptoms of tetanus.