How are viruses able to reproduce in a living cell?
Viruses lack essential machinery needed to reproduce by themselves. In fact, viruses can only reproduce after infecting a living cell – a process called viral replication.
Can a virus replicate without a host cell?
John Goulding, Imperial College London, UK. As viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens they cannot replicate without the machinery and metabolism of a host cell. Although the replicative life cycle of viruses differs greatly between species and category of virus, there are six basic stages that are essential for viral replication.
How are viruses used to treat different cell types?
Since many viruses can infect a large number of different cell types, genetically modified viruses often are used to carry foreign DNAinto a cell. This approach provides the basis for a growing list of experimental genetherapy treatments. Because of the extensive use of viruses in cell biology research and their potential
How are enveloped viruses released from the host cell?
Enveloped viruses, such as influenza A virus, are typically released from the host cell by budding. It is this process that results in the acquisition of the viral phospholipid envelope. These types of virus do not usually kill the infected cell and are termed cytopathic viruses.
How does a virus reproduce in a host cell?
Some viruses reproduce using both methods, while others only use the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA. Using the host’s cellular metabolism, the viral DNA begins to replicate and form proteins. Then fully formed viruses assemble.
How are viruses broken down in the cycle of infection?
The cycle of infection. Cells infected with temperate viruses are called lysogenic because the cells tend to be broken down when they encounter some chemical or physical factor, such as ultraviolet light. In addition, many animal and plant viruses, the genetic information of which is not integrated into the host DNA,…
How does a virus replicate in the lytic cycle?
There are two processes used by viruses to replicate: the lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle. Some viruses reproduce using both methods, while others only use the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA.
What makes a virus different from a prokaryotic cell?
Summary 1 Viruses are tiny particles, smaller than prokaryotic cells. 2 Viruses are not cells and cannot replicate without help, but they have nucleic acids and can evolve. More